Senior Dharma Teacher - Hwasangnim
Senior Monk/Priest (Skt. Upādhyāya; C: 和尚; Py: Héshang; J. Oshō; K. Hwasangnim; H. 주지스님; KUSZ: Seon Deok Boep Sa). In Sanskrit, a religious instructor or “preceptor.” The Upādhyāya is first and foremost a monk who confers the lower ordination to new novices (Śrāmaṇera) and higher ordination (Upasaṃpadā) to monks (Bhikṣu). Alternatively, after ten years, he was called Sthavira; in Chinese (Zhùwèi 住位), meaning “remaining in the position,” or more commonly “elder monk.” This referred to the fact that the monk was considered able to live without depending on his teacher. The term Héshang is actually an early Chinese transcription of the Khotanese translation of the Sanskrit Upādhyāya, meaning “preceptor.” To act as an Upādhyāya, a monk must be qualified and competent and be of at least ten years standing in the order since his own higher ordination. The relationship of the preceptor to the disciple is like that of father and son. The preceptor is enjoined to teach the dharma and vinaya to his disciple and, as necessary, to supply him with requisites, such as robes and an alms bowl. He should tend to his disciple if he is ill and discipline him if he commits some wrongdoing. If the disciple should begin to entertain doubts about the religion, the preceptor should try to dispel them. If the disciple should commit a grave offense against the monastic rules and regulations, the preceptor is to prevail upon him to go before the sangha to seek expiation. If the disciple misbehaves or becomes disobedient, the preceptor is enjoined to expel him. But if the disciple shows remorse and asks forgiveness, the preceptor is to take him under guidance again. A monk ceases to be an Upādhyāya when he goes away, dies, secedes from the order, changes religion, or expels his disciple.